A bunion is a common foot condition that affects the big toe joint. It is characterized by a bony bump on the inside of the foot at the base of the big toe. This bump is formed by the displacement of the big toe joint and can cause pain, inflammation, and difficulty in walking. The term "bunion" comes from the Greek word "buno" which means "swelling."
A bunion occurs when the bones in the big toe joint become misaligned. The big toe is pushed towards the other toes, causing the head of the first metatarsal bone (the bone that connects to the big toe) to protrude out of place. This creates a bony bump on the inside of the foot, and the joint becomes enlarged and inflamed.
Bunions can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, foot structure, and the type of shoes worn. They are more common in women than in men and can be painful and can limit mobility.